Annotated Bibliography Melting Glaciers

What is Global Warming?

Global warming refers to extreme changes in the Earth’s climate. The term illustrates dramatic increases in atmospheric and water temperatures experienced as a result of growing amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Humans are responsible for producing these gases via cars, electricity, and factories. The main products of these activities that are to blame for global warming are methane and carbon dioxide; as carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon compounds go farther and farther into the Earth’s atmosphere, they deplete the ozone layer.

Holes in the ozone are allowing harmful ultra violet rays (that are usually deflected by the ozone layer) to make their way to lower levels of the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases absorb and give off radiation from the UV rays, contributing to extreme temperature conditions.

For greater understanding of global warming and the greenhouse effect, check out:

Effects of Global Climate Change

Global warming has had extreme effects on the planet. Earth’s average surface temperature has been increasing; since the 1880s, temperature has increased by between 1 and 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit. While this may sound like a small number, it has heavily impacted other aspects of our global ecosystem, and it is continuing to rise at a faster rate. Arctic ice is vanishing and glaciers are melting; as a result, polar bears, penguins, and other animals have begun to suffer.

The recent frequency of heat waves, intense tropical storms, and natural disasters has also been partially attributed to trends in global climate change. Extreme weather will most likely have a negative impact on crops and agriculture. As staple crops become scarcer, they will become more expensive. Such products include rice, wheat, corn, and soy, which are also utilized in animal feed; the result: prices of many other types of food will increase as well, making all food relatively more expensive.

To read more about the effects of global warming, visit:


The Kyoto Protocol is an international effort to combat global climate change. Developed at the United Nations’ Convention on Climate Change in 1997, this treaty is aimed at capping the number of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere and it intends to hold nations accountable to their environmental commitments. 191 countries have signed and ratified the treaty. The only country that has not ratified is the United States.

Perhaps the most well-known piece of legislation in the US is the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act was created to decrease the number of air pollutants being released into the atmosphere, subsequently having a positive impact on air quality and contributing to the general health of the population. Amendments have been made to the Clean Air Act over time to account for ozone depletion and acid rain. The US also utilizes regulations on fuel, energy, and water in order to help the environment.

For more information on these pieces of legislation:

Combating Global Warming—Being Green

In today’s society, the color green has become synonymous with environmental friendliness. Governments, businesses, and individuals can all contribute towards mitigating climate change, and in many cases, all of these groups have been working hard to become greener. Some towns use monetary incentives in order to motivate their citizens to become more environmentally conscious and friendly. The Federal Government also has incentives in place for businesses to encourage them to reduce their carbon footprints. On the other end of the environmental responsibility spectrum, the government uses taxes to discourage and penalize businesses that are particularly harmful to the environment.

Switching to renewable energy sources can help to protect the environment from damage that results from burning fossil fuels for energy. Scientific developments and the spread of wind, solar, and geothermal power are helping to make the world less carbon-dependent; they also help by producing less methane in the process of providing energy. On the whole, these sources of energy are more sustainable and less harmful to the planet. However, there are some sources of greenhouse gases that are harder for mankind to combat. Many animals emit methane from their bodies during food consumption and digestion-related processes.

To learn more about sustainable energy, you may want to read these sources:

Carbon Footprints

“Carbon footprints” are used to measure the impact that certain individuals, products, and activities have on global warming. This metric attempts to quantify the amount of greenhouse gases that are being produced. Greenhouse gases are comprised of many elements and compounds, but Carbon Dioxide is often used as a proxy for these elements in calculations and discussions related to carbon footprints.

Almost every activity that occurs in the course of a single day has some impact on the environment. Transportation, electricity, and manufacturing are often highly detrimental and are major areas where people, businesses, and countries can cut down on their carbon footprints. Understanding the size of carbon footprints and what contributes to them allows each participant in the global environment to take action to reduce it.

More information about carbon footprints can be found by reading:

Adams, Ansel, and John Szarkowski. The Portfolios of Ansel Adams. Boston: Little, Brown/Bulfinch, 1977.

Adamson, Jeremy, Katerina Atanassova, Steven N. Brown, Lucie Dorias, Charles C. Hill, Joan Murray, Roald Nasgaard, Dennis Reid, David P. Silcox, and Shirley L. Thomson. Canadian Art: The Thomson Collection at the Art Gallery of Ontario. Toronto: Skylet, 2008.

Agassiz, Louis, and Albert V. Carozzi. Studies on Glaciers: Preceded by the Discourse of Neuchâtel. New York: Hafner, 1967.

Andres, Alberto de. Alpine Views: Alexandre Calame and the Swiss Landscape. Williamstown, MA: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute; New Haven: Distributed by Yale University Press, 2006.

Andrews, Lynne. Arctic Eye: The Visual Journey. Mount Rumney, Tasmania: Studio One, 2007.

Arnold, H. J. P., and Herbert George Ponting. Photographer of the World: The Biography of Herbert Ponting. London: Hutchinson, 1969.

Ashworth, William B. Jr. Ice: A Victorian Romance, An Exhibition of Rare Books from the Collection of the Linda Hall Library. Kansas City, MO: 2008.

Aunet, Léonie, d’. Voyage d’une femme au Spitzberg, 3ed. Paris, 1867.

Baigell, Matthew. Albert Bierstadt. New York: Watson-Guptill, 1981.

———. Thomas Hart Benton. New York: Abrams, 1973.

Banerjee, Subhankar. Arctic Voices: Resistance at the Tipping Point. New York: Seven Stories Press, 2012.

———. Seasons of Life and Land: A Photographic Journey by Subhankar Banerjee. Seattle: The Mountaineers Books, 2003.

Barth, Nadine, ed. Vanishing Landscapes. Frances Lincoln, 2008.

Beattie, Andrew. The Alps: A Cultural History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Becker, Olaf Otto, Freddy Langer, and Konrad Steffen. Above Zero. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2010.

Berton, Pierre. The Arctic Grail: The Quest for the North West Passage and the North Pole, 1818-1909. New York: Viking Penguin, 1988.

Boime, Albert. The Magisterial Gaze. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.

Borsch-Supan, Helmut. Casper David Friedrich. New York: George Braziller, 1974.

Bourrit, Marc Theodore. A Relation of a Journey to the Glaciers in the Dutchy of Savoy, 1775. Translated from the French by C. and F. Davy. Norwich: Richard Beatniffe, 1775, from Miall, David. S and Duncan Wu. Romanticism: The CD-ROM. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997.

Braasch, Gary. Earth under Fire: How Global Warming Is Changing the World. Berkley: University of California Press, 2007.

Bradford, William. The Arctic Regions, Illustrated with Photographs Taken on an Art Expedition to Greenland. 1873. Facsimile of the first edition, edited by Michael Lapides. Boston: David R. Godine, in association with the New Bedford Whaling Museum, 2013.

Breashears, David. High Exposure: An Enduring Passion for Everest and Unforgiving Places. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999.

Brinkley, Douglas. The Quiet World: Saving Alaska’s Wilderness Kingdom, 1879–1960. New York: HarperCollins, 2011.

Buckland, David, MacGilp, Ali, and Parkinson, Sîon, eds. Burning Ice: Art and Climate Change. London: Cape Farewell, 2006.

Carr, Gerald L. Frederic Edwin Church: The Icebergs. Dallas: Dallas Museum of Art, 1980.

Chambonniere, Sophie and Studievic Helene, eds. Ferdinand Hodler: Le paysage. Paris: Somogy editions d’art, 2003.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. The Annotated Ancient Mariner: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. New York: Bramhall House, 1965.

Conway, Sir Martin. No Man’s Land: A History of Spitsbergen from Its Discovery in 1596 to the Beginning of the Scientific Exploration of the Country. Mansfield Centre, CT: Martino Publishing, 2005.

Cooke, Alan and Clive Holland. The Exploration of Northern Canada, 500 to 1920: A Chronology. Toronto: Arctic History Press, 1978.

Cosgrove, Denis and Veronica della Dora, eds. High Places: Cultural Geographies of Mountains, Ice and Science. London: I.B. Tauris, 2009.

Costello, Peter. Jules Verne: Inventor of Science Fiction. New York: Scribner, 1978.

Decker Julie. True North: Contemporary Art of the Circumpolar North. Anchorage: Anchorage Museum, 2012.

Dee, Elaine Evans. To Embrace the Universe: Drawings by Frederic Edwin Church. New York: The Hudson River Museum at Yonkers, New York, 1984.

Downie, David L., Kate Brash, and Catherine Vaughan. Climate Change: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2009.

Euclaire, Sally. The New Color Photography. New York: Cross River Press, 1981.

Fagan, Brian, ed. The Complete Ice Age: How Climate Change Shaped the World. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2009.

———. The Great Warming: Climate Change and the Rise and Fall of Civilizations. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2008.

Fels, Thomas Weston. Fire and Ice: Treasures from the Photographic Collection of Frederic Church at Olana. New York: Dahesh Museum of Art and Cornell University Press, 2002.

Ferris, Scott R. and Ellen Pearce. Rockwell Kent’s Forgotten Landscapes. Camden, ME: Down East Books, 1998.

Fox, William L. Terra Antarctica: Looking into the Emptiest Continent. San Antonio, TX: Trinity University Press, 2005.

Gage, John. J.M.W. Turner: A Wonderful Range of Mind. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987.

Gamble, Cynthia. “John Ruskin, Eugene Viollet-le-Duc and the Alps.” The Alpine Journal, 1999.

Gorner, Veit and Eveline Bernasconi, eds. Issac Julien: True North, Fantome Afrique. Kestnergesellschaft, Hannover: Kestnergesellschaft, 2006.

Gunnarsson, Torsten. Nordic Landscape Painting in the Nineteenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

Gunnarsson, Torstem, et al. A Mirror of Nature: Nordic Landscape Painting 1840–1910. Denmark: Narayana Press, 2006.

Harris, Bess, ed. Lawren Harris. Toronto: Macmillan, 1969.

Harris, Lawren. North by West: The Arctic and Rocky Mountain Paintings of Lawren Harris 1924–1932. Calgary: Glenbow Museum, 1991.

Hartmann, Hans and Röthlisberger, Marcel. The Alps in Swiss Painting. Chur: Verlag Bündner Kunstmuseum, 1977.

Harvey, Eleanor Jones. The Voyage of the Icebergs: Frederic Church’s Arctic Masterpiece. Dallas: Dallas Museum of Art, 2002.

Hendricks, Gordon. Albert Bierstadt: Painter of the American West. New York: Abrams, 1974.

Henson, Matthew A. A Black Explorer at the North Pole: An Autobiographical Report by the Negro Who Conquered the Top of the World with Admiral Robert E. Peary. New York: Walker and Company, 1969.

Hill, Charles C. The Group of Seven: Art for a Nation. Toronto, Ont: McClelland & Stewart, 1995.

Horch, Frank. “Photographs and Paintings by William Bradford.” American Art Journal 5, no. 2 (Nov. 1973): 61–70.

Howat, John K. Frederic Church. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2005.

Imbert, Bertrand. North Pole, South Pole: Journeys to the Ends of the Earth. New York: Abrams, 1992.

Imhof, Patrizia. “Glacier Fluctuations in the Italian Mount Blanc Massif from the Little Ice Age Until the Present.” Master’s thesis, University of Bern, 2010.

Jacobs, Michael. The Painted Voyage: Art, Travel, and Exploration 1564–1875. London: Published for the Trustees of the British Museum by British Museum, 1995.

Junker, Patricia A. Albert Bierstadt: Puget Sound on the Pacific Coast: A Superb Vision of Dreamland. Seattle: Seattle Art Museum in association with University of Washington Press, 2011.

Kelly, Franklin, Stephen Jay Gould, James Anthony Ryan, and Debora Rindge. Frederic Edwin Church. Washington: National Gallery of Art,1989.

Kent, Rockwell. The Mythic and the Modern. Manchester: Hudson Hills Press, 2005.

———. Wilderness: A Journal of Quiet Adventure in Alaska. Los Angeles: Wilderness Press and War Ritchie Press, 1970.

Kilian, Bernhard. The Voyage of the Schooner Polar Bear: Whaling and Trading in the North Pacific and Arctic, 1913–1914. New Bedford, MA: Old Dartmouth Historical Society and the Alaska Historical Commission, 1983.

Kilkenny, Ann-Marie Amy. “Life and Scenery in the Far North: William Bradford’s 1885 Lecture to the American Geographical Society.” American Art Journal 26, no. 1/2: 106–8.

King, Clarence. Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada. New York: Scribner’s, 1902.

Klipper, Stuart D. The Antarctic: From the Circle to the Pole. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2008.

Kolbert, Elizabeth. Field Notes from a Catastrophe: Man, Nature, and Climate Change. New York: Bloomsbury USA, 2006.

Krause, Reinhard A. and Lars U. Scholl. The Magic of Antarctic Colours. Bremerhaven, Germany: H.M. Hauschild GmbH, Bremen, 2004.

Kugler, Richard C., et al. William Bradford: Sailing Ships and Arctic Seas. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2003.

Larisey, Peter. Light for a Cold Land: Lawren Harris’s Work and Life: An Interpretation. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1993.

Linder, Chris. Science on Ice: Four Polar Expeditions (title in italic). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2011.Lopez, Barry Holstun. Arctic Dreams: Imagination and Desire in a Northern Landscape. New York: Scribner’s, 1986.

Lynch, Lawrence. Jules Verne. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992.

Macfarlane, Robert. Mountains of the Mind. New York: Pantheon Books, 2003.

Marsh, Joanna. Alexis Rockman: A Fable for Tomorrow. Washington, DC: Smithsonian American Art Museum, 2010.

Matilsky, Barbara. Fragile Ecologies: Contemporary Artists’ Interpretations and Solutions. New York: Rizzoli, 1992.

———. “Francois-Auguste Biard: Artist-Naturalist-Explorer.” Gazette Des Beaux-Arts, February 1985.

———. “Sublime Landscape Painting in Nineteenth Century France: Alpine and Arctic Iconography and Its Relationship to Natural History.” Michigan: University Microfilms International, 1983.

———. “The Survival of Culture and Nature: Perspectives on the History of Environmental Art,” in Art and Design, profile no. 36. London, United Kingdom, 1994.

McCannon, John. “Tabula Rasa of the North: The Soviet Arctic and Mythic Landscapes of Stalinist Popular Culture” in The Landscape of Stalinism: The Art of Soviet Space, eds. Evgeny Dobrenko and Eric Naiman. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003.

Miller, Paul D. (DJ Spooky). The Book of Ice. Brooklyn: Mark Batty, 2011.

Mitchell, Timothy. “Frederic Church’s ‘The Icebergs’: Erratic Boulders andTime Slow Changes.” Smithsonian Studies in American Art 3, no. 4 (1989): 3–23.

Nasgaard, Roald. The Mystic North: Symbolist Landscape Painting in Northern Europe and North America, 1890–1940. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984.

Nicolson, Marjorie Hope. Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory: The Development of the Aesthetics of the Infinite. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1959.

Noble, Louis Legrand. After Icebergs with a Painter: A Summer Voyage to Labrador and Around Newfoundland. New York and London: D. Appleton, 1861; reprint New York: Olana Galleries, 1979.

Novak, Barbara. Nature and Culture: American Landscape and Painting, 1825–1875. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Nussbaumer, S.U., H.J Zumbuhl, and D. Steiner, “Fluctuations of the Mer de Glace (Mont Blanc area, France) 1500–2050: An Interdisciplinary Approach Using New Historical Data and Neural Network Simulations.” Zeitschrift fur Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie, Herausgegeben von Michael Kuhn, Universitatsverlag wagner, Innsbruck, 2005–2006.

Pollack, Henry. A World Without Ice. New York: Avery, Penguin Group, 2009.

Ponting, Herbert George. The Great White South: Traveling with Robert F. Scott’s Doomed South Pole Expedition. New York: Cooper Square, 2001.

———. Scott’s Last Voyage: Through the Antarctic Camera of Herbert Ponting. Edited by Ann Savours. New York: Praeger, 1975.

Porter, Eliot. Antarctica. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1978.

Potter, Russell A. Arctic Spectacle: A Frozen North in Visual Culture, 1818–1875. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2007.

Power, Nina. “Mountain and Fog.” Cabinet 27 (2007): 73–75.

Princenthal, Nancy. “Reasons to be Happy: Huyghe’s ‘Celebration Park.’”Art in America (September 2006): 125–29.

Pyne, Stephen J. The Ice, A Journey to Antarctica. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1986.

Roerich, Nicholas. Heart of Asia: Memories from the Himalayas. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions,1990.

Rohrbach, John and Rebecca Solnit. Eliot Porter: The Color of Wildness. New Jersey: Aperture, 2003.

Rowthorn, Anne. The Wisdom of John Muir. New York: Wilderness Press, 2012.

Ruskin, John. Modern Painters, vol. 4. Boston: Dana Estes & Company, 1900.

Saussure, Horace-Benedict de. Voyages dans les Alpes. Chéne-Bourge/Genéve: George Editeur, 2002.

Schiff, Gert and Stephan Waetzoldt. German Masters of the Nineteenth Century: Paintings and Drawings from the Federal Republic of Germany. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1981.

Scott, Robert Falcon. Scott’s Last Expedition … Vol. I. Being the Journals of Captain R.F. Scott, R.N., C.V.O. Vol II. Being the Reports of the Journeys and the Scientific Work Undertaken by Dr. E.A. Wilson and the Surviving Members of the Expedition, arranged by Leonard Huxley. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1913.

Scott, Samuel, ed. To the Ends of the Earth: Painting the Polar Landscapes. Salem, MA: Peabody Essex Museum, 2009.

Seaman, Camille. The Last Iceberg. Portland, OR: Photolucida, 2008.

Silcox, David P. The Group of Seven and Tom Thomson: Tom Thomson, Lawren Harris, J.E.H. MacDonald… [et al]. Toronto, Ont: Firefly Books, 2003.

Singer, S. Fred and Dennis T. Avery. Unstoppable Global Warming, Every 1,500 Years. Rowman and Littlefield, 2007.

Spaulding, Jonathan. Ansel Adams and the American Landscape: A Biography. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Spufford, Francis and Elizabeth Kolbert, eds. The Ends of the Earth. New York: Bloomsbury USA, 2007.

Stafford, Barbara Maria. Voyage into Substance: Art, Science, Nature, and the Illustrated Travel Account, 1760–1840. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,1984.

Stebbins, Jr. Theodore E. Close Observations: Selected Oil Sketches by Frederic E. Church. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1978.

Townshend, Nancy. “Canadian Parks and Protected Areas through Artists’ Eyes: Transforming the Western Canadian Rockies” (2008).

Webber, Bert and Margie Webber. I Shoot the News: The Adventures of Will E. Hudson, First Newsreel Cameraman in the Pacific Northwest. Medford, OR: Webb Research Group, 1999.

Wheeler, Sara. The Magnetic North: Notes from the Arctic Circle. London: Jonathan Cape, 2007.

Wilton, Andrew. Turner and the Sublime. London: British Museum Publications, 1980.

Wolff, Justin. Thomas Hart Benton: A Life. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012.











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